Internet Geographer



Graham, M and Dutton, W. H. (eds). 2014. Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hammett, D., Twyman, K. C., and Graham, M. 2014. Research and Fieldwork in Development. London: Routledge.

Select publications

Friederici, N. Ojanperä, S., and Graham, M. 2017. The Impact of Connectivity in Africa: Grand Visions and the Mirage of Inclusive Digital DevelopmentElectronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries (in press).

Ford, H. and Graham, M. 2016. Provenance, Power, and Place: Linked Data and Opaque Digital geographies. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. doi:10.1177/0263775816668857 (pre-publication version here).

Foster, C. and Graham, M. 2016. Reconsidering the Role of the Digital in Global Production Networks. Global Networks. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12142.

Smart, C., Donner, J., and Graham, M. 2016. Connecting the World from the Sky: Spatial Discourses Around Internet Access in the Developing World. Eighth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development.

Straumann, R. K., Graham, M. 2016. Who isn't online? Mapping the 'Archipelago of Disconnection.'Regional Studies, Regional Science. 3(1) 96-98.

Mann, L and Graham, M. 2016 The Domestic Turn: Business Process Outsourcing and the Growing Automation of Kenyan Organisations. Journal of Development Studies 52:4, 530-548, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2015.1126251. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M., and Foster, C. 2016. Geographies of Information Inequality in Sub-Saharan AfricaThe African Technopolitan. 5 78-85.

Graham, M., Mann, L., Friederici, N. and Waema, T. 2016. Growing the Kenyan Business Process Outsourcing SectorThe African Technopolitan. 5 93-95

Ford, H., and Graham, M. 2016. Semantic Cities: Coded Geopolitics and the Rise of the Semantic Web. In Code and the City. eds. Kitchin, R., and Perng, S-Y. London: Routledge. 200-214.

Poorthuis, A., Zook, M., Shelton, T., Graham, M, and Stephens, M. 2016. Using Geotagged Digital Social Data in Geographic Research. In Key Methods in Geography. eds. Clifford, N., French, S., Cope, M., and Gillespie, T. London: Sage. 248-269.

Graham, M., Straumann, R., Hogan, B. 2016. Digital Divisions of Labor and Informational Magnetism: Mapping Participation in Wikipedia. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 105(6) 1158-1178. doi:10.1080/00045608.2015.1072791.(pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. 2015. Information Geographies and Geographies of Information New Geographies 7 159-166.

Graham, M., De Sabbata, S., Zook, M. 2015. Towards a study of information geographies:(im)mutable augmentations and a mapping of the geographies of information Geo: Geography and Environment.2(1) 88-105. doi:10.1002/geo2.8

Graham, M. 2015. Contradictory Connectivity: Spatial Imaginaries and Techno-Mediated Positionalities in Kenya's Outsourcing Sector. Environment and Planning A 47 867-883 (pre-publicaion version here).

Graham, M., Andersen, C., and Mann, L. 2015 Geographical Imagination and Technological Connectivity in East Africa. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 40(3) 334-349. (pre-publication version here).

Graham, M and De Sabbata, S. 2015 Mapping Information Wealth and Poverty: The Geography of Gazetteers. Environment and Planning A 47(6). 1254-1264. (pre-publication version here).

Sen, S. W., Ford, H., Musicant, D. R., Graham, M., Keyes, O. S. B., Hecht, B. 2015 Barriers to the Localness of Volunteered Geographic Information. CHI 2015 (pre-publication version here).

Allagui, I., Graham, M., and Hogan, B. 2015. Wikipedia Arabe et la Construction Collective du SavoirIn Wikipedia, objet scientifique non identifie. eds. Barbe, L., Merzeau, L., and Schafer, V. Paris: Presses Universitaries du Paris Ouest. 177-194.

Zook, M., Graham, M., and Boulton, A. 2015. Crowd-sourced Augmented Realities: Social Media and the Power of Digital Representation. In Mediated Geographies International Handbook. eds. Mains, S., Cupples, J.,and Lukinbeal, C. New York: Springer. 223-242.

Graham, M., Hogan, B., Straumann, R. K., and Medhat, A. 2014. Uneven Geographies of User-Generated Information: Patterns of Increasing Informational Poverty. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 104(4). 746-764. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. 2014 Inequitable Distributions in Internet Geographies: The Global South is Gaining Access But Lags in Local Content. innovations 9(3-4). 17-34.

Choi, J. H-j., and Graham, M. 2014 Urban Food Futures: ICTs and Opportunities. Futures 62(B; October). 151-154. (pre-publication version here)

Shelton, T., Poorthuis, A., Graham, M,. and Zook, M. 2014. Mapping the Data Shadows of Hurricana Sandy: Uncovering the Sociospatial Dimensions of 'Big Data'. Geoforum 52. 167-179. (open pre-publication version here).

Dutton, W. H., and Graham, M. 2014. Introduction. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1-22.

Graham, M. 2014. Internet Geographies: Data Shadows and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 99-116.

Graham, M. 2014. A Critical Perspective on the Potential of the Internet at the Margins of the Global Economy. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 301-318.

Graham, M. 2014. The Knowledge Based Economy and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Companion to Development Studies, 3rd edition, eds V. Desai, and R. Potter. Hodder189-195.

Graham, M. and Zook, M. 2014. Augmentierte Geographien: Zur digitalen Erfahrung des städtischen Alltags. Geographische Rundschau65(6) 18-25.

Yasseri, T., Spoerri, A., Graham, M. and Kertesz, J. 2014. The Most Controversial Topics in Wikipedia: A Multilingual and Geographical Anlaysis. In Global Wikipedia: International and Cross-Cultural Issues in Online Collaboration. eds. Fichman, P., and Hara, N. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield 25-48.

Graham, M, S. Hale, and D. Gaffney. 2014. Where in the World are You? Geolocation and Language Identification in Twitter. The Professional Geographer 66(4) 568-578. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and Shelton, T. 2013. Geography and the Future of Big Data; Big Data and the Future of GeographyDialogues in Human Geography 3(3) 255-261. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2013. Open Development through Open Consumption: The Internet of Things, User-Generated Content and Economic Transparency. In Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. eds. Smith, M. L., and Reilly, K. M. A., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 79-111.

Graham, M. 2013. The Virtual Dimension. In Global City Challenges: debating a concept, improving the practice. eds. M. Acuto and W. Steele. London: Palgrave. 117-139.

Graham, M, R. Schroeder, and G. Taylor. 2013. Re: Search New Media and Society. 15(8) 1366-1373 (pre-publication version here).

Graham, M. 2013. Social Media and the Academy: New Publics or Public Geographies? Dialogues in Human Geography 3(1) 77-80 (pre-publication version here).

Graham, M and M. Zook. 2013. Augmented Realities and Uneven Geographies: Exploring the Geo-linguistic Contours of the Web. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 77-99.

Wilson, M and M. Graham. 2013. Guest Editorial: Situating Neogeography. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 3-9.

Graham, M. 2013. Geography/Internet: Ethereal Alternate Dimensions of Cyberspace or Grounded Augmented Realities? The Geographical Journal 179(2) 177-182.

Graham, M., Shelton, T., and M. Zook. 2013. Mapping Zombies: A Guide for Pre-Apocalptic Analysis and Post-Apocalytpic Survival. In Zombies in the Academy: Living Death in Higher Education. eds. A. Whelan, R. Walker and C. Moore. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 147-156.

Graham, M. and L. Mann. 2013. Imagining a Silicon Savannah? Technological and Conceptual Connectivity in Kenya's BPO and Software Development Sectors. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 56(2). 1-19.

Crampton, J. W., M. Graham, A. Poorthuis, T. Shelton, M. Stephens, M. W. Wilson, and M. Zook. 2013. Beyond the Geotag: Situating 'big data' and leveraging the potential of the geoweb. Cartography and Geographic Information Science40(2): 130-139.

Graham, M. 2013. Thai Silk dot Com: Authenticity, Altruism, Modernity and Markets in the Thai Silk Industry. Globalisations 10(2) 211-230.

Graham, M., M. Zook., and A. Boulton. 2013. Augmented Reality in Urban Places: contested content and the duplicity of code. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 38(3), 464-479. (pre-publication version here)

Shelton, T., M. Zook and M.Graham. 2012. The Technology of Religion: Mapping Religious Cyberscapes. The Professional Geographer 64(4). 602-617.

Graham, M., S. Hale, and M. Stephens. 2012. Digital Divide: The Geography of Internet AccessEnvironment and Planning A, 44(5)1009-1010.

Brunn, S., R. Ghose and M. Graham. 2012. Cities of the Future and the Future of Cities. In Cities of the World, 5th edition, eds S. Brunn, M. Hays-Mitchell, and D. Ziegler. Rowman and Littlefield, 557-597.

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2012. Global Production Patterns. In 21st Century Geography: A Reference Handbook. ed. Stoltman, J. London: Sage. 411-421.

Graham, M. 2012. Die Welt in Der Wikipedia Als Politik der Exklusion: Palimpseste des Ortes und selective Darstellung. In Wikipedia. eds. S. Lampe, and P. Bäumer. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung/bpb, Bonn.

Graham, M. 2011. “Perish or Globalize:” Network Integration and the Reproduction and Replacement of Weaving Traditions in the Thai Silk Industry ACME: Journal of Critical Geographies10(3) 458-482.

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2011. Transparency and Development: Ethical Consumption through Web 2.0 and the Internet of ThingsInformation Technologies and International Development. 7(1). 1-18.

Graham, M. 2011. Wiki Space: Palimpsests and the Politics of Exclusion. In Critical Point of View: A Wikipedia Reader. Eds. Lovink, G. and Tkacz, N. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 269-282.

Graham, M. 2011. Time Machines and Virtual Portals: The Spatialities of the Digital DivideProgress in Development Studies. 11 (3). 211-227.

Graham, M. and M. Zook. 2011. Visualizing Global Cyberscapes: Mapping User Generated PlacemarksJournal of Urban Technology. 18(1), 115-132.

Graham, M. 2011. Cultural Brokers, the Internet, and Value Chains. In The Cultural Wealth of Nations. eds. Wherry, F. and N. Bandelj. Standford: Stanford University Press. 222-239 (email for a copy).

Graham, M. 2011. Disintermediation, Altered Chains and Altered Geographies: The Internet in the Thai Silk IndustryElectronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 45(5), 1-25

Graham, M. 2011. Cloud Collaboration: Peer-Production and the Engineering of the Internet. In Engineering Earth. ed. Brunn, S. New York: Springer, 67-83.

Graham, M. 2010. Justifying Virtual Presence in the Thai Silk Industry: Links Between Data and DiscourseInformation Technologies and International Development. 6(4), 57-70.

Zook, M., M. Graham, T. Shelton, & S. Gorman. 2010. Volunteered Geographic Information and Crowdsourcing Disaster Relief: A Case Study of the Haitian Earthquake.World Medical and Health Policy. 2(2), 7-33.

Graham, M. 2010. Neogeography and the Palimpsests of PlaceTijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. 101(4), 422-436.

Zook, M. and M. Graham. 2010. The Virtual 'Bible Belt.' Environment and Planning A. 42(4), 763-764.

Graham, M. 2010. Web 2.0 and Critical Globalization StudiesRadical Teacher. 87, 70-71.

Graham, M. 2009. Different Models in Different Spaces or Liberalized Optimizations? Competitive Strategies among Budget Air CarriersJournal of Transport Geography. 17(4), 306-316.

Graham, M. 2008. Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development. Geography Compass, 2(3), 771-789.

Brunn, S., R. Ghose, & M. Graham. 2008. Cities of the Future and the Future of Cities. In Cities of the World, 4th edition, eds S. Brunn, M. Hays-Mitchell, and D. Ziegler. Rowman and Littlefield, 565-613.

Graham, M. 2008. The Place of Space in Internet Matrimony. Indian Geographical Journal, 83(2), 87-104.

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. The Creative Reconstruction of the Internet: Google and the Privatization of Cyberspace and DigiPlaceGeoforum, 38, 1322-1343.

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. From Cyberspace to DigiPlace: Visibility in an Age of Information and Mobility. In Societies and Cities in the Age of Instant Access. Ed. H. J. Miller. Springer, 231-244. (request copy by email).

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. Mapping DigiPlace: Geocoded Internet Data and the Representation of PlaceEnvironment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 34(3) 466 – 482.

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2006. Wal-Mart Nation: Mapping the Reach of a Retail Colossus. In Wal-Mart World. Ed. S. Brunn. Routledge, 15-25.

Other publications

Graham, M. and Wood, A. 2016. Why the digital gig economy needs co-ops and unionsopenDemocracy. Sept 15, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Digital work marketplaces impose a new balance of powerNew Internationalist.May 25, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Organising the Digital "Wild West": Can Strategic Bottlenecks Help Prevent a Race to the Bottom for Online Workers? Union Solidarity International. May 11, 2016 (also translated into Turkish)

Graham, M. 2016. Digital Work and the Global Precariat. Union Solidarity International. Mar 30, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Facebook is no Charity, and the 'Free' in Free Basics Comes at a Price. The Conversation Jan 11, 2016

Graham, M. 2015. Why Does Google Say Jerusalem is the Capital of Israel? Nov 30, 2015

Zook M, T Shelton, A Poorthuis, R Donohue, M Wilson, M Graham, M Stephens. 2015. What would a floating sheep map? Lexington, KY: Oves Natantes Press.

Graham, M. 2015. Internet For All Is An Impossible Dream Right NowGizmodo Oct 11, 2015 /Internet for all Remains an Impossible Dream, No Matter What Jimmy Wales Says. The Conversation Oct 8, 2015.

Graham, M. 2015. Digital Work Signals a Global Race to the BottomSciDevNet Sept 15, 2015

Graham, M. 2015. The Hidden Biases of Geodata. The Guardian Apr 28, 2015.

Foster, C. G., and Graham, M. 2015. Connectivity and the Tea Sector in Rwanda.Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Foster, C. G., and Graham, M. 2015. The Internet and Tourism in Rwanda. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Mann, L., Graham, M., and Friederici, N. 2015. The Internet and Business Process Outsourcing in East Africa. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Graham, M. 2014. Why global contributions to Wikipedia are so unequal. The ConversationSeptember 8, 2014

Graham, M. 2014. Geotagging reveals Wikipedia is not quite so equal after all. New StatesmanAugust 18, 2014.

Graham, M. and B. Hogan. 2014. Uneven Openness: Barriers to MENA Representation on Wikipedia. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Graham, M. 2014. Kenya BPO and ITES Policy Brief. OII White Paper March 2014

Graham, M. 2013. Kenya's Laptop's For Schools Dream Fails to Address Reality. The Guardian June 27, 2013.

Graham, M. 2013. Geographies of Information in Africa: Wikipedia and User-Generated Content. In R-Link: Rwanda's Official ICT Magazine. Kigali: Rwanda ICT Chamber. 40-41.

Graham, M, M. Stephens, and S. Hale. 2013. Mapping the Geoweb: A Geography of Twitter. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 100-102.

Wilson, M and M. Graham. 2013. Neogeography and Volunteered Geographic Information: A Conversation with Michael Goodchild and Andrew Turner. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 10-18.

Graham, M. 2013. Reaching Audiences Through Blogs and Social Media. In Publishing and Getting Read: A Guide for Researchers in GeographyEds. A. Blunt, and C. Souch. London: Royal Geographical Society. 34.

Graham, M. 2012. The Problem with WikidataThe Atlantic Apr 6, 2012.

Graham, M. 2012. Big data and the end of theory? The Guardian Mar 9, 2012.

Graham, M. 2012. In a Networked World, Why is the Geography of Knowledge Still Uneven?The Guardian Jan 9, 2012.

Graham, M., S. Hale & M. Stephens. 2011. Geographies of the World's KnowledgeConvoco! Edition.

Graham, M., S. Hale & M. Stephens. 2011. Eine Geographie Des Wissens Der WeltConvoco! Edition.

Zook, M., M. Graham, & T. Shelton. 2011. Analyzing Global Cyberscapes: Mapping Geocoded Internet InformationProceedings of the 2011 iConference.

Graham, M. 2010. A New Kind of Globalisation? User-Generated Content and Transparent Production ChainsThe Guardian. Dec 9, 2010.

Graham, M. 2010. Will Broadband Internet Establish a New Development Trajectory for East Africa?The Guardian Oct 7, 2010.

Graham, M. 2010. The Digital Economy. Book review essay in Regional Studies. 44:3, 385-386.

Zook, M., M. Graham & T. Shelton 2010. The Presidential Placemark Poll. Atlas of the 2008 Election. Ed. S. Brunn. In Press.

Graham, M., T. Shelton and M. Zook. 2010. Map of U.S. Abortion Providers and Alternatives. In Mapping America: Exploring the Continent. Eds. F. C. Kessler and F. Jacobs. Black Dog Publishing. 140-141.

Graham, M. 2009. Wikipedia's Known UnknownsThe Guardian Dec 2, 2009.

Graham, M. 2009. Ethical Consumption and Production through Web 2.0: A Call for Participation. Development Geography Specialty Newsletter of the American Association of Geographers. Autumn 2009: 4.

Graham, M. 2009. Fluid Knowledge and Transparency: Using Web 2.0 to Promote Compassionate Consumption. Qualitative Geography Specialty Group NewsletterMarch 2009: 3.

Graham, M. 2008. Globalization, Culture, and Inequality. Book review essay in Progress in Development Studies, Vol 8(3), 296-298.

Graham, M. 2006 For Space. Book review essay in Growth and Change, Vol 37:4, 643-645.

Graham, M. 2005. Working in Silicon Valley. Book review essay in Urban Studies Vol. 42:13, 2535-2537.

Graham, M. 2005. Music and the Middle. RIFLe. Fall.

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